Lesson 10: HIV/ AIDS: You Have a Role to Play
- Students get to know the basic facts about HIV/AIDS, including ways of getting infected, and about the impact of the disease on people in physical and social ways;
- Pupils believe in the reality and the scale of the epidemic;
- Pupils are encouraged to have HIV testing if necessary;
- Pupils develop empathy for those infected with and affected by HIV/AIDS.
- between HIV and AIDS, stigma and explain that the virus damages the immune system;
- List the four bodily fluids in which HIV is apparent;
- List the three main ways for HIV to enter a person’s body and correct myths about HIV transmission;
- List four high-risk behaviors for HIV transmission and two low-risk sexual practices;
- List two infections/diseases that people with HIV/AIDS often get;
- Explain the difference between cure and treatment and show awareness that there is no cure for HIV/AIDS;
- Explain that it can take any time between several months up to ten years for someone with HIV to develop the first AIDS symptoms, while they can infect other people during all this time;
- Explain that if an HIV-positive person leads a healthy lifestyle, this may slow down the process of developing AIDS symptoms;
- Explain how STIs and rape increase the risk of HIV transmission;
- Explain that antiretroviral drugs reduce the chance of mother-to-child HIV infection;
- Explain that taking a blood test is the only way to find out whether someone is infected with HIV;
- Explain how HIV testing takes place, that HIV testing is anonymous and describe where they can get HIV testing and counseling;
- List two consequences for people living with HIV/AIDS if they are not treated well or stigmatized and list two things you can do for people who are HIV-infected or who have AIDS;
- Describe the role of government, NGOs and communities in fighting HIV/AIDS.
- Show they are motivated to prevent HIV/AIDS and to contribute to the fight against HIV/AIDS;
- Show empathy with people living with HIV or AIDS, endorse their right to support and health care and are motivated to support them;
- Show they are convinced of the importance of visiting a VCT center if necessary.
- Provide a scenario on how to provide other people with information and support to prevent them from being infected with HIV/AIDS
- Explain step by step how to prevent HIV infection
- Provide a realistic plan for supporting People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and advocate for them in their community.
- Demonstrate they can judge whether information is valuable or not.
- Design and creative
- Present themselves to the public – make and send an HIV/AIDS postcard
- Choose a person to write to and compose a personal message for them
- Create a short and powerful message
- Create a postcard by cutting and pasting from printed materials, drawing or painting
- Select relevant information from newspaper articles.
After lesson 10, focusing on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in general, this lesson is completely dedicated to HIV/AIDS. This is because HIV/AIDS is such a serious disease and has many personal and social consequences. To get started, the pupils will look at the facts about HIV/AIDS. Then they will listen to some short interviews with people who are infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. The pupils then work in groups to think about what action young people can take. Finally, they make a postcard to support HIV/AIDS-affected people. There are three optional exercises. It would be useful take the students to a health clinic where they get information or to invite a health service provider to come to the school to give information. Another option is to have people affected by HIV/AIDS come and talk to the students, or, as a group, to go and visit a place that assists HIV/AIDS-affected people or pupils. The third optional activity is to acquire information related to HIV/AIDS from newspaper articles. This is how you can introduce this lesson to the pupils: You have probably heard and read a lot about this subject already. Maybe you know someone who has HIV/ AIDS. But have you got all the facts? Do you know the impact HIV/AIDS has on your community? Have you considered taking an HIV test yourself? How do you support people living with HIV/AIDS? Let’s ask ourselves what we can do about it, because U have a role 2 play 2!’
In this lesson the teachers and learners will use different active learning methods.
- Method 1
Delivery of this lesson will be done with minimum requirement that discussed in the following steps.Delivery Method
1. Results expedition:
Check with pupils the challenges involved in trying to obtain a condom. Depending on in-class safety, you might invite pupils to tell something about their experiences in attempting to get a condom: how they went about it, whether they were successful, what difficulties they experienced.
2. Stand-alone (warm up 5 mins)
- Pupils develop a sense of how important it is to be part of a group and how it feels to stand alone.
All pupils stand in a circle. Call out a series of questions. If pupils answer ‘yes’, they go to the centre of the circle. If they say ‘no’, they stay where they are. During the game, the questions are getting increasingly personal.
- everyone who likes the color red stand in the middle
- everyone who comes from a rural area stand in the middle
- everyone who is the first-born stand in the middle
- everyone who is the last-born stand in the middle
- everyone who plays sports stand in the middle
- everyone who would like to be a peer educator stand in the middle
- everyone who knows someone who has AIDS stand in the middle
- everyone who wants to go to university stand in the middle
- everyone who loves music stand in the middle; and so on… You can make the questions as personal as you or the pupils feel comfortable with. Add as many questions as you like.
3. Presentation – U have a role 2 play 2 (30 mins)
- Pupils acquire knowledge and facts about HIV/AIDS.
The pupils read the presentation in their Pupils Book. The presentation covers the following topics:basic information about HIV/AIDS; how to avoid it;
what to do if you are HIV-positive;
what to do if you are not;
helping people living with HIV/AIDS; taking an AIDS test.
Discuss with pupils whether they think AIDS is a major problem in Ethiopia well.
- Group work: discuss what you can do (30 mins).
- Pupils have a discussion to help them internalize these stories and their knowledge of HIV/AIDS;
- Pupils think about what role they can play in supporting people infected with HIV/AIDS or affected by it.
Having read the presentation and listened to the spoken interviews, the pupils discuss in four groups what they think they can do for people infected with HIV/AIDS or affected by it in their own neighborhood. Pupils make a realistic action plan, addressing the following questions:
- what activity is the group going to undertake?
- who will benefit from it?
- what do they want to achieve?
- when are they going to do it? If there is time, ask some pupils what they came up with. Each group can decide what activity they will carry out in the week to come.
Individual work: make and send a postcard (30 mins)
- Pupils are encouraged to take personal responsibility for themselves and for their environment regarding the HIV/AIDS endemic;
- Pupils select a message they feel will support a person infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS.
Pupils choose a person who is infected with HIV/AIDS or affected by it, someone they feel needs some support. This can be a friend, family member, parent, teacher, but also someone they do not know, such as a person with HIV/AIDS in a clinic or an AIDS orphan (someone who has lost parents or guardians due to AIDS). Students frame a message to support this person and will make them feel less isolated or otherwise. Students produce a postcard with this message and decorate it: keep it short and powerful! This postcard can be created by cutting and pasting from printed materials, drawing, newspapers or painting.
Conclusion and homework (5 mins)
Round off the session, reminding pupils why we are together, summarizing the new things we have learned about HIV/AIDS and about reading newspapers and tell them what we will be doing in the next session.
Pupils make a start with their action plan (perhaps they may visit a patient, an orphanage, etc.). Or they can post their postcard or deliver it to someone. Ask pupils to find out whether there is an organization in their community that is working to fight AIDS, be it prevention, counselling or help for people living with HIV/AIDS. Specifically, pupils should find out where there is a Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) center which they could visit.
Visit a VCT/HCT If it is possible for the group to pay a visit to a VCT, this would be highly beneficial. Research has shown that this can be an effective way of getting young people to stay safe. or
Health worker from a VCT/ HCT: Ask a health worker from a clinic or VCT to visit the group. They do not need to spend long but just show their face to tell the group that they would be welcome there. This can be very helpful for young people with doubts and worries. The trip can be undertaken in any lesson after lesson
or Option III: HIV/AIDS in the news (45 mins)
Finding the main points of articles, judging the value of information, summarizing the main points and possibly, rewriting the scenarios or views.
- Pupils learn to judge the value of information;
- Pupils deal with the problem hands-on;
- Pupils become aware of the extent of the problem: how and how many people are affected by HIV/AIDS
- How Pupils study and work with newspaper articles (some examples can be found at the end of this lesson)
- The different articles cover the following areas in relation to HIV/AIDS:
- facts about HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia;
- infection or transmission of HIV/AIDS and prevention;
- the physical progression of HIV/AIDS;
- the social and economic effects of HIV/AIDS;
- steps being taken by the government, NGOs or the community to combat HIV/AIDS.
You can begin by pointing out that there is an enormous number of items about HIV/AIDS in the newspaper every day. Many of them are letters sent to the editor by readers or articles by journalists presenting points of view and commentary. Explain the different types of articles that can be found in a newspaper, such as news articles written by journalists on national issues, regional issues and local issues. Besides, there is the opinion page, which presents commentary articles also written by journalists, and finally, there is a letter-to-the-editor section.
- Divide pupils into groups of three or four and give each group a Straight Talk or Young Talk newsletter or print to work with.
- Each group should sit down together and take their time to read the newspaper.
- Give the groups about 10 minutes reading time and 10 – 15 minutes discussion time to formulate answers to the questions relating to the questions. You can also select your own articles from the local paper, if it is at hand.
Presentation and Discussion
The groups gather together and each group presents its results. The groups discuss the findings of each group.
For guidelines to this discussion:
- Each group should choose two speakers to present their answers.
- The first speaker should read the five main assignment relating to the article.
- The first speaker can present the answers the group has given.
- The whole group should be asked for their reactions and be encouraged to discuss points that come up.
- You can ask the group if they agree with the statements made.
Of course there are still so many question to ask about HIV/AIDS. Do you have one? Let’s look at more facts and some frequently asked questions to see if you can find your answers!
2. Facts about HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia
In Ethiopia, both male and female adults are not infected in equal numbers: females are especially at risk. We know this because, in the 15-19-year age group, about 12% of the reported cases of HIV were boys and 88% were girls. This means that, for every boy who is reported to be infected, six girls are likely to be infected.
3. Did you know that …
Experts estimate that 9.5% of adult Ethiopians – that is 1.9 million people – are infected with HIV. HIV infection appears to have peaked in and around many cities in Ethiopia. However, infection rates in some rural areas are either going up or levelling off.
4. Did you know that … The rate of mother-to-child transmission is estimated at 15-25%. There are medicines for the infected mother to take to reduce the chance of her baby getting infected
5. Did you know that … Ethiopia has the highest number of orphans in Sub-Sahara Africa. An estimated 1.1 million children below the age of 15 have lost their mother or both parents to AIDS. It is feared that the traditional family systems can no longer cope with this increasing burden if it continues to grow. The average age of Ethiopians dropped from 48 years in 1990 to 38 years in 1997. But …
Ethiopia’s response to the threat of HIV/AIDS in all sectors and levels of society has had positive effects since 1998. There is great potential for success in the on-going battle against HIV/AIDS, as the country has demonstrated.
6. What do the government and NGOs do to combat the disease?
The main task of the Government and NGOs is to make sure that all Ethiopians in all districts, towns and villages are informed about HIV/AIDS: what it is and what it is not;
8. Frequently asked questions
- What is the ‘window period’? >>
- Why is the ‘window period’ important? >>
- Is it possible for a wife to test negative for HIV and for her husband to test positive? Is it possible the other way round?
- Is it true that, to get AIDS, you must be involved with many sexual partners?
After someone has been infected with HIV, it usually takes the body three months to make enough antibodies against the virus. The HIV test looks for these antibodies and, therefore, the test shows always a negative result in these first three months.
- The time between HIV infection and the development of sufficient antibodies to be detected is called the window period. The window period is important because a person may have HIV but not yet enough antibodies. The test cannot detect the insufficient number of antibodies and will, therefore, prove negative. Yet this person will be able to infect other people with HIV. When the window period is over, the person will test positive for HIV. This is why one should have two tests for HIV, with the second test after three to six months. In the meantime, this person should abstain from unprotected sexual intercourse.
- Yes, both are possible. HIV is not passed on with every act of unprotected sexual intercourse and it may take time to infect a partner. This is why it can be good to know whether you have been infected with the HIV virus. You can protect your partner and yourself. You can continue to take care of your pupils. In these cases, condoms must be used during all sexual intercourse.
4. No, a single sexual encounter can be enough to pass HIV to an uninfected person.
- The risk of getting HIV through unprotected sexual intercourse increases with:
- A greater number of partners a person has unprotected sexual intercourse with;
- The presence of blood during sexual intercourse (due to sores, menstruation or abrasive sex);
- The presence of STIs in either partner.